# Torus

## Definition

Take a hollow cylinder (a tube), bend it to a ring, connect the two open ends and you get a torus:

Another construction is to revolve a circle in three dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle (Wikipedia). The torus is in a standard, canonical position if the circle is perpendicular to the x/y-plane and is rotated about the z-axis.

## Implicit Equation

The implicit equation of the canonical torus with inner radius *r*
and revolving radius *R* is:

( | (1) |

This formula is derived in the figures below.

## Parametric Equation

Torus is a 2-dimensional surface and hence can be parametrized by 2 independent variables which are obviously the 2 angles:

α = angle in the x/y-plane, around the z-axis, 0° ≤ α < 360° | (1a) |

β = angle around the x/y-plane, 0° ≤ β < 360° | (1b) |

The vector * c* from the origin

*O*to the inner center

*C*of the torus is:

| (2) |

The vector * d* from the inner center

*C*of the torus to the point A on the torus surface can be written as the sum of its orthogonal components:

| (3a) |

| (3b) |

| (3b) |

The vector * a* =

*(x, y, z)*from the origin to an arbitrary point A(x, y, z) on the torus surface is:

^{T}
| (4) |

By substituting (2) and (3) into (4) we get the parametric equations of the torus:

| (5a) |

| (5b) |

| (5c) |

The parameters *α, β* are usually denoted by *u, v*, respectively.

## Octave Program

An Octave program (see also SourceForge) for drawing a torus is below (similar to Matlab):

```
function f = torus(r, R, numGridPoints)
gridPoints = linspace(0, 2*pi, numGridPoints);
[u, v] = meshgrid(gridPoints, gridPoints);
x = (R + r * cos(v)) * cos(u);
y = (R + r * cos(v)) * sin(u);
z = r * sin(v);
surf(x, y, z);
end
```